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Wednesday, May 12

  1. page Ulna Group edited {http://www.faqs.org/health-encyc/images/tnismhe_08_img0011.jpg} {http://www.bumc.bu.edu/forensi…
    {http://www.faqs.org/health-encyc/images/tnismhe_08_img0011.jpg}{http://www.bumc.bu.edu/forensicanthro/files/2008/10/dscn01881.jpg}
    Had thispic in mind while I was doing my case analysis. It shows how forensic anthropologists lay out the remains durring crime scene invesigation. The only thing I can really idtify is the wide greater siatic notch ineh left side pelvis, common trait in females. Added by Jeff 12may2010
    {http://www.faqs.org/health-encyc/images/tnismhe_08_img0011.jpg}

    This picture shows different types of bone fractures that used durring a crime scene investigation as possible evidance of how the victim died. Also, fractres can be used in identification or possibly age because of the color or how far along the healing process is. Added by Jeff 12may2010
    The lower extremities consist of the list to the right Mike Moore 4/13/10
    (view changes)
    9:33 am
  2. page Ulna Group edited {http://www.faqs.org/health-encyc/images/tnismhe_08_img0011.jpg} This picture shows different t…
    {http://www.faqs.org/health-encyc/images/tnismhe_08_img0011.jpg}
    This picture shows different types of bone fractures that used durring a crime scene investigation as possible evidance of how the victim died. Also, fractres can be used in identification or possibly age because of the color or how far along the healing process is. Added by Jeff 12may2010

    The lower extremities consist of the list to the right Mike Moore 4/13/10
    Healed blunt force trama to the skull Mike Moore 4/13/10 {http://www.web-books.com/eLibrary/Medicine/Physiology/Skeletal/lower_extremity.jpg}
    (view changes)
    9:24 am

Monday, May 10

  1. page Skull Group edited ... {http://www.pitt.edu/%7Eanat/Neuro/Skull/SkullPost.jpg} DENTAL INDICATORS FOR RACE IDENTIFIC…
    ...
    {http://www.pitt.edu/%7Eanat/Neuro/Skull/SkullPost.jpg}
    DENTAL INDICATORS FOR RACE IDENTIFICATION
    African-African - the central
    European- the central incisors shape is rarely shoveled, the jaw size is small, and the dental arcade is parabolic
    East Asian- the central incisors are often shoveled, the jaw size is large, and the dental arcade is elliptical
    ...
    African- the cranial shape is long, the post-bregma is depressed, the suture patterns are simple, and the browridges are small
    European- the cranial shape is medium, the post-bregma is straight, the suture patterns are simple, and the browridges are heavy
    East Asian-Asian - the cranial
    (jon)
    NOSE INDICATORS FOR RACE IDENTIFICATION
    ...
    (jon)
    The above racial indicators were retrieved from class notes.
    ...
    the Skull
    Male
    Female
    ...
    Determination of sex (jon)
    DETERMINATION OF SEX VIA THE PELVIS
    {http://www.anthro4n6.net/forensics/pelvis2.gif}
    Male
    Female
    ...
    Small
    BONE CLASSIFICATION
    long bones-bones - Long bones
    short bones- these consist of the bones in the wrist and ankle
    flat bones- consist of the scapulae, sternum, ribs, and the majority of the skull
    ...
    {http://www.health.com/health/static/hw/media/medical/hw/n1249.jpg} http://www.health.com/health/static/hw/media/medical/hw/n1249.jpg
    ribs- protects the internal organs
    sternum-sternum - holds the
    manubrium- upper part of the sternum where the clavicle and the first two ribs articulate from
    xiphoid process- the attachment point for the diaphragm and abdominal muscles
    (jon)
    THE SPINE
    {http://www.disabled-world.com/artman/uploads/spine.jpg}
    THE PELVIS
    ...
    {http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/07/99107-004-B9666996.jpg} http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/07/99107-004-B9666996.jpg
    TYPES OF TRAUMA
    Fractures-Fractures - when pressure
    Types of fractures-
    Greenstick- the separation of the bone doesn't occur, it bends but doesn't break
    Compound-whenCompound- when the bone
    Spiral- when the bone is twisted apart
    Stress-Stress - a crack
    Fatigue- occur from stress over a long period of time, occurs usually in the spine
    Hematoma- where ruptured blood vessels pool over the injured area, this helps stabalize the pieces of bone injured as the blood coagulates
    Callus- where a new fibrous bone that isn't as strong as compact bone, covers the injured area
    Blunt Force Trauma- force applied over large area
    (jon)
    {http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/archsci/depart/resgrp/towton/Towton_Image3.jpg} http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/archsci/depart/resgrp/towton/Towton_Image3.jpg
    Sharp Force Trauma- can be caused by a slice or sheer
    ...
    Maturity- Is the bone the size it should be? if not it is probably not a human bone. If it is the same size, sometimes you can tell if it's human if it has an epiphisis, because animal bones likely don't. Also, this can be seen in the pelvic bones that fuse with age.
    Architectural- the size and density of bone, the presence of bones where they shouldn't be.
    (jon)
    Contemporary vs. Old Bones
    -state of preservation- things like color changes, breakage, loss of soft tissue, texture, and hydration
    -personal belongings- what is present with remains, what is relevant to the time period can determine what time they lived in
    -state of interment- how they are buried. Posture and orientation
    -body modification-modification - tattoos, ear
    ...
    lip stretching
    (jon)

    Estimating Time Since Death
    Decomposition and Skeletonization-Skeletonization - time size
    ...

    Warm Climates
    First Day- Egg masses of insects, veins seen through the skin, body fluids present around mouth or nose
    First Week-
    Maggots
    Maggots active on
    ...
    surrounding vegetation, bloating.
    —First Day—Egg masses of insects, veins seen through the skin, body fluids present around mouth or nose—First Week—Maggots active on face, bones around eyes visible, skin and hair slipping from body, stench, volatile fatty acids may kill surrounding vegetation, bloating.—First Month—Bloating
    bloating
    First Month- Bloating
    subsides, maggots less, more beatles,beetles, skin dry
    ...
    leathery, bones exposed—First Year—Skeleton fully exposed
    —First Day—Egg masses of insects, veins seen through the skin, body fluids present around mouth or nose—First Week—Maggots active on face, bones around eyes visible, skin and hair slipping from body, stench, volatile fatty acids may kill surrounding vegetation, bloating.—First Month—Bloating subsides, maggots less, more beatles, skin dry and leathery, bones exposed—First Year—Skeleton

    First Year- skeleton
    fully exposed
    —First Day—Egg masses of insects, veins seen through the skin, body fluids present around mouth or nose—First Week—Maggots active on face, bones around eyes visible, skin and hair slipping

    obtained
    from body, stench, volatile fatty acids may kill surrounding vegetation, bloating.—First Month—Bloating subsides, maggots less, more beatles, skin dry and leathery, bones exposed—First Year—Skeleton fully exposednotes (jon)
    Cold Climates
    {Picture1.png}
    Obtained from notes (jon)
    Stage:

    Pubic Symphysis Morphology
    MorphologicalM orphological changes of
    Below are the methods of Todd (1920) and Suchey/Brooks (in Brooks and Suchey, 1990). The diagrams of each method were adapted from Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994), the descriptions associated with each drawing taken from the original publications.
    TODD METHOD:
    {http://www.nd.edu/%7Estephens/todd.jpg} Phase Phase 1: Symphyseal
    Phase 2: Symphyseal surface still rugged. Horizontal grooves are becoming filled near their dorsal limit with new, finely textured bone. Bony nodules may be present, fusing with upper symphyseal face. Dorsal delimiting margin begins to develop. No delimitation of the extremities. Ventral bevel commences. (Age, 20-21)
    Phase 3: Symphyseal face shows progressive obliteration of ridge and furrow system. Commencing formation of a dorsal platform. Bony nodules may be present. Definition of dorsal margin, with sharp lipping. Ventral bevel more pronounced. Extremities not delimited. (Age, 22-24)
    Phase 4: Great increase of ventral beveled area. Corresponding diminution of ridge and furrow formation. Complete definition of dorsal margin through the formation of the dorsal platform. Commencing delimitation of lower extremity. (Age, 25-26)
    Phase 5: Little Little change in
    Phase 6: Increasing definition of extremities. Development and practical completion of ventral rampart. Retention of some granular appearance of symphyseal face indicating that activity has not yet ceased. Failure of ventral aspect of pubis adjacent to ventral rampart to become transformed into a compact surface. The rampart may therefore be somewhat undermined. Retention of the pectinate outline of the dorsal margin and slight ridge and furrow system. No lipping of ventral margin and no increased lipping of dorsal margin. (Age, 30-35)
    Phase 7: Face and ventral aspect change from granular to fine-grained or dense bone. Slight changes in symphyseal face and marked changes in ventral aspect from diminishing activity. No formation of symphyseal rim. No ossification of tendinous and ligamentous attachments. (Age, 35-39)
    Phase 8: Symphyseal face and ventral aspect of pubic bone generally smooth and inactive. Oval outline complete. Extremities clearly defined. No distinct "rim" to symphyseal face. No marked lipping of ventral or dorsal margin. Development of ossification in tendinous and ligamentous attachments, especially those of sacro-tuberous ligament and gracilis muscle. (Age, 40-45)
    Phase 9: Symphyseal face presents a more or less marked rim. Dorsal margin uniformly lipped; ventral margin irregularly lipped. (Age, 45-49)
    Phase 10:Ventral10: Ventral margin eroded
    SUCHEY/BROOKS METHOD (female):
    {http://www.nd.edu/%7Estephens/SBfemale.jpg} Phase Phase 1: Symphyseal
    Phase 2: Symphyseal face may still shw ridge development. Lower an dupper extremities show early stages of delimitation, with or witout ossific nodules. Ventral rampart may begin formation as extension from either or both extremities.
    Phase 3: Symphyseal face shows lower extremity and ventral rampart in process of completion. Fusing ossific nodules may form upper extremity and extend along ventral border. Symphyseal face may either be smooth or retain distinct ridges. Dorsal plateau is complete. No lipping of symphyseal dorsal margin or bony ligamentous outgrowths.
    SUCHEY/BROOKS METHOD (male):
    {http://www.nd.edu/%7Estephens/SBmale.jpg} Phase Phase 4: Symphyseal
    Phase 5: Slight depression of the face relative to a completed rim. Moderate lipping is usually found on the dorsal border with prominent ligamentious outgrowths on the ventral border. Little or no rim erosion, though breakdown possible on superior aspect of ventral border.
    Phase 6: Symphyseal face shows ongoing depression as rim erodes. Ventral ligamentous attachments are marked. Pubic tubercle may appear as a separate bony knob. Face may be pitted or porous, giving an appearance of disfigurement as the ongoing proecss of erratic ossificaiton procededs. Crenelations may occur, with the shape of the face often irregular.
    ...
    http://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/rad/ext/
    This is a link to a pdf file that covers all important imformation that we have covered in class this semester.
    http://www-personal.une.edu.au/~pbrown3/skeleton.pdf
    Fractures
    Type
    ...
    {http://www.anthro4n6.net/forensics/sutures1.gif}
    {http://www.anthro4n6.net/forensics/epifusion2.gif} Top

    (view changes)
    8:59 pm
  2. file Picture1.png uploaded
    8:57 pm
  3. page Skull Group edited ... THE ARM humerus- provides movement of the arm and helps balance ... with the humerous, h…
    ...
    THE ARM
    humerus- provides movement of the arm and helps balance
    ...
    with the humerous,humerus, provides support
    ...
    with the humerious,humerus, provides support
    ...
    the radius
    (jon)
    THE ARM BONES AND HEIGHT IDENTIFICATION
    The humerus, ulna, and radius can be used to estimate the height of an individual through different calculations. These calculations depend on ancestry and sex. The calculations are the factor x bone measurement + constant. The factor and constant change depending on on the bone being measured.

    (jon)
    THE HAND
    ...
    BONES OF THE LOWER LEG
    {http://www.patient.co.uk/images/I77_L.JPG} http://www.patient.co.uk/images/I77_L.JPG
    the bones aboveTHE LEG BONES AND HEIGHT IDENTIFICATION
    The femur, tibia, and fibula can be used to estimate the height of an individual through different calculations. These calculations depend on ancestry and sex. The calculations
    are all relevant in forensics (jon)the factor x bone measurement + constant. The factor and constant change depending on on the bone being measured.
    (jon)

    THE FOOT
    {http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/07/99107-004-B9666996.jpg} http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/07/99107-004-B9666996.jpg
    TYPES OF TRAUMA
    Fractures- when pressure is applied to the bone to cause it to break
    Types of fractures-
    Greenstick- the separation of the bone doesn't occur, it bends but doesn't break
    Compound-when the bone penetrates the skin
    Spiral- when the bone is twisted apart
    Stress- a crack in the bone caused by overuse
    Fatigue- occur from stress over a long period of time, occurs usually in the spine
    Hematoma- where ruptured blood vessels pool over the injured area, this helps stabalize the pieces of bone injured as the blood coagulates
    Callus- where a new fibrous bone that isn't as strong as compact bone, covers the injured area
    Blunt Force Trauma- force applied over large area
    {http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/archsci/depart/resgrp/towton/Towton_Image3.jpg} http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/archsci/depart/resgrp/towton/Towton_Image3.jpg
    Sharp Force Trauma- can be caused by a slice or sheer
    {http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/archsci/depart/resgrp/towton/Towton_Image4.jpg} http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/archsci/depart/resgrp/towton/Towton_Image4.jpg
    Projectile Trauma- usually penetrates to other side of bone, resulted from compressed pressure ex) a gun
    {http://anthropology.si.edu/writteninbone/images/GSWentrance_exit.jpg} http://anthropology.si.edu/writteninbone/images/GSWentrance_exit.jpg
    Human vs. Non- Human Bone- a key way to determine if the bone discovered is human bone or not bone is through maturity and architecture
    Maturity- Is the bone the size it should be? if not it is probably not a human bone. If it is the same size, sometimes you can tell if it's human if it has an epiphisis, because animal bones likely don't. Also, this can be seen in the pelvic bones that fuse with age.
    Architectural- the size and density of bone, the presence of bones where they shouldn't be.
    Contemporary vs. Old Bones
    -state of preservation- things like color changes, breakage, loss of soft tissue, texture, and hydration
    -personal belongings- what is present with remains, what is relevant to the time period can determine what time they lived in
    -state of interment- how they are buried. Posture and orientation
    -body modification- tattoos, ear plugs, lip stretching
    Estimating Time Since Death
    Decomposition and Skeletonization- time size death can be determined by looking at the phases below.
    Warm Climates
    First Day- Egg masses of insects, veins seen through the skin, body fluids present around mouth or nose
    First Week-
    Maggots active on face, bones around eyes visible, skin and hair slipping from body, stench, volatile fatty acids may kill surrounding vegetation, bloating.
    —First Day—Egg masses of insects, veins seen through the skin, body fluids present around mouth or nose—First Week—Maggots active on face, bones around eyes visible, skin and hair slipping from body, stench, volatile fatty acids may kill surrounding vegetation, bloating.—First Month—Bloating subsides, maggots less, more beatles, skin dry and leathery, bones exposed—First Year—Skeleton fully exposed
    —First Day—Egg masses of insects, veins seen through the skin, body fluids present around mouth or nose—First Week—Maggots active on face, bones around eyes visible, skin and hair slipping from body, stench, volatile fatty acids may kill surrounding vegetation, bloating.—First Month—Bloating subsides, maggots less, more beatles, skin dry and leathery, bones exposed—First Year—Skeleton fully exposed
    —First Day—Egg masses of insects, veins seen through the skin, body fluids present around mouth or nose—First Week—Maggots active on face, bones around eyes visible, skin and hair slipping from body, stench, volatile fatty acids may kill surrounding vegetation, bloating.—First Month—Bloating subsides, maggots less, more beatles, skin dry and leathery, bones exposed—First Year—Skeleton fully exposed

    Pubic Symphysis Morphology
    Morphological changes of the articular surfaces of the innominate provides an excellent postcranial age indicators for adult remains. Variation in the face of the pubic symphysis, the anterior-most point of articulation between the two innominates in the pelvic girdle, is a common region analyzed for age determination. Todd (1920) outlined a 10-stage method for assessing this surface, based on a large sample of male innominates. Changes in the symphyseal surface over time proceed in a predictable pattern from a heavily contoured face, to one delimited by a rim in the mid 30s, to a surface marked by increasing porosity after 40 years. Analysis by Meindl and coworkers (1985) has shown the Todd method to be the most accurate of the pubic symphyseal methods available. It should be noted however, that a tendency to over-age individuals has been found after age 40 by some (BROOKS, 1955), while others claim under-aging of the 45+ year old individuals is problematic (Aiello and Molleson, 1993).
    (view changes)
    8:44 pm
  4. page Skull Group edited ... THE SPINE {http://www.disabled-world.com/artman/uploads/spine.jpg} THE PELVIS {http://zin…
    ...
    THE SPINE
    {http://www.disabled-world.com/artman/uploads/spine.jpg}
    THE PELVIS
    {http://zinjanthropus.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/pelvis-454x309.jpg} http://zinjanthropus.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/pelvis-454x309.jpg
    The main bones that are relevant to forensics are:
    1) Illium
    2) Ischium
    3) Pubis
    4) Pubis Symphysis
    (jon)
    BONES OF THE LOWER LEG
    {http://www.patient.co.uk/images/I77_L.JPG} http://www.patient.co.uk/images/I77_L.JPG
    the bones above are all relevant in forensics (jon)
    THE FOOT
    {http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/07/99107-004-B9666996.jpg} http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/07/99107-004-B9666996.jpg

    Pubic Symphysis Morphology
    Morphological changes of the articular surfaces of the innominate provides an excellent postcranial age indicators for adult remains. Variation in the face of the pubic symphysis, the anterior-most point of articulation between the two innominates in the pelvic girdle, is a common region analyzed for age determination. Todd (1920) outlined a 10-stage method for assessing this surface, based on a large sample of male innominates. Changes in the symphyseal surface over time proceed in a predictable pattern from a heavily contoured face, to one delimited by a rim in the mid 30s, to a surface marked by increasing porosity after 40 years. Analysis by Meindl and coworkers (1985) has shown the Todd method to be the most accurate of the pubic symphyseal methods available. It should be noted however, that a tendency to over-age individuals has been found after age 40 by some (BROOKS, 1955), while others claim under-aging of the 45+ year old individuals is problematic (Aiello and Molleson, 1993).
    (view changes)
    7:06 pm

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