I choose to add this to my group's page because I am a criminal justice major and I found it interesting to learn
how a forensic anthropolgist helps solve crimes.( Alicia Hutton)--February 4th, 2010--
History Channel. “Crime Scene Investigation and Forensic Anthropology " 21 February 2008 . Online video clip. YouTube. Accessed on 4 February 2010.


collage1.gif




I was looking at different websites to see if their were any diagrams I like regarding the skull. I came across this one which if you go to this website
http://www.csuchico.edu/anth/Module/skull.html, and you click on the bone you are studying...it gives a break down of every landmark. I really like this site because it allows you to see
the skull from all angles and pinpoints where all the landmarks are.( February 8th- 2010)(Alicia Hutton)


I found this video on youtube that really shows all of the different parts of the skull and shows where each part is and what they do.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nc5IRj3OJhE. "Skull Bones". 28 October 2008. Online video clip. YouTube. 10 Feb 2010.
(February 10, 2010- Alyssa Zimmermann)

external image CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS-1.GIF
The above image illustrates the suture paterns and fiberous connections that make up a new born infants kull, as the infant ages these fibrous sections and sutures will close to form the skull. The loose connection of crainial bone allows for child birthing.
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=skull+suture+patterns&form=QBIR&qs=n&sk=#focal=7b491d12a09916683036d75e0d133021&furl=http%3A%2F%2Futahhealthsciences.net%2Fcustomer%2Fimage_gallery%2F354%2FCRANIOSYNOSTOSIS-1.GIF (Evan Busch, May 10th 2010)

I found this article online that basically breaks down determining sex, age,stature and weight of a skeleton using various parts of the skeleton.
http://www.anthro4n6.net/forensics/
(Winson, T. (2004, December). The Forensic anthropologist . Retrieved from http://www.anthro4n6.net/forensics/ )

(February 15th, 2010- Alicia Hutton)


I found this chart online that lays out the ways to determine sex on the skeleton...not just the skull. The website also lays out the criteria for ancestry as well.

Landmarks
Female
Male
Chin
Rounded
Square
Mastoid Process
(Behind Ear)
Small
Large
External Occipital Protuberance
(Back of Skull)
Small
(Not Prominent)
Large
(Prominent)
General Anatomy
Gracile (i.e., Graceful)
Robust
Forehead
Vertical
Receding
(Careful with the comments . . .)
Brow Ridges
(Location of Eyebrows)
Slightly Developed
Prominent
Muscle Lines
Slightly Developed
Prominent
Orbital Margins
(Edge of Eye Socket)
Sharp
Rounded
Angle of Ascending Ramus
(Back Corner of the Jaw)
Obtuse
Close to 90 degrees

http://shs.westport.k12.ct.us/forensics/11-forensic_anthropology/skeletal_analysis_worksheet.htm
(Alicia Hutton, February 22nd, 2010)

Dentition Chart ( February 23rd, 2010- Alicia Hutton )
http://www.cyh.com/HealthTopics/library/parent_chart_eruption_permanent.gif

dentalID1.jpgjhuAKS.gif



Here is a diagram of the vertebral column split into the five parts. ( March 1st, 2010)-- Alicia Hutton

Vertebral_column.jpghttp://ckgbio.blogspot.com/2009/04/21-understanding-support-and-locomotion_08.html

TABLE 1: Cranial Ancestral Traits: A Summary of the Current Research Methodology
TRAIT
CAUCASOID
NEGROID
MONGOLOID
|| 1. cranial index* || 75 to 80, mesocranic || less than 75, dolichocranic || greater than 80, brachycranic ||

2. sagittal contour

arched

flat with bregmatic or post-bregmatic depression

arched

3. keeling of skull vault

absent

present

absent

4. total facial index*

greater than 90,
narrow to very narrow

less than 85,
broad to very broad

85 to 90,
medium or average

5. facial profile

orthognathic (straight, flat)

prognathic (projecting), especially in the alveolar area

intermediate to mostly orthognathic

6. nuchal ridge profile

pinched and prominent

slightly pinched

rounded

7. base chord

long

long

short

8. suture pattern

simple

simple

complex

9. metopic suture

present

absent

absent

10. Wormian bones

absent

absent

Present

11. eye orbit shape

angular and sloping

square or rectangle

rounded and non-sloping

12. lower eye border

receding

receding

projecting



13. nasal index*
less than 48, leptorrhinic (narrow)
greater than 53, platyrrhinic (wide)
48 to 53, mesorrhinic (intermediate)
14. nasal cavity shape
tear shaped
rounded and wide
oval shaped
15. nasal bones
"tower shaped," narrow and parallel from anterior, slightly arched in profile
"Quonset hut shaped," wide and expanding from anterior, no arch in profile
"tented," narrow and expanding from anterior, arched in profile
16. nasal overgrowth
absent
absent
present
17. nasal sill or dam
present
absent
absent
18. lower nasal spine
large and sharp
small
small
19. zygomatic arches
narrow and retreating
medium to large and retreating
projecting
20. external auditory meati
round
oval window
round
oval
21. palate shape
triangular
rectangular
parabolic or horseshoe shaped
22. palate suture
irregular
irregular
straight
23. occlusion
slight overbite
slight overbite
edge-to-edge or even
24. central incisors
blade shaped
blade shaped
shovel shaped
25. ascending ramus of mandible
pinched at midsection
back slanted
wide and vertical
26. gonial angle
slightly flared
not flared
slightly flared
27. chin profile
prominent and projecting
rounded
slightly projecting
This shows all the ways to determine the ethnicity of a person using their skull. (Alyssa Zimmermann)
http://www.redwoods.edu/Instruct/AGarwin/anth_6_ancestry.htm

spinal map
spinal map

This is a diagram of the spinal cord and the nerves that each of the vertebrae connect to. Injury to any one of these will cause problems specific to the nerve that vertebrae. One type of spinal cord injury (SCI) is:
Osteoporosis and Fractures: The majority of people with SCI develop osteoporosis. In people without SCI, the bones are kept strong through regular muscle activity or by bearing weight. When muscle activity is decreased or eliminated and the legs no longer bear the body's weight, they begin to lose calcium and phosphorus and become weak and brittle. It generally takes some time for osteoporosis to occur. In people who use standing frames or braces, osteoporosis is less of a problem. Generally, though, 2-t years following SCI some degree of bone loss will occur.
Using the legs to provide support in transferring is helpful in increasing the load on the bones, which may reduce or slow down the osteoporotic process. Standing using a standing frame or a standing table also helps prevent weakening of the bones and so does using braces for functional or parallel bar walking. Newer techniques, such as electrical stimulation of the leg muscles, may decrease osteoporosis as well.
Unfortunately, at the present time, there is no way to reverse osteoporosis once it has occurred. The main risk of osteoporosis is fracture. Once the bones become brittle, they fracture easily. An osteoporotic bone takes much longer to heal.


"Possible Complications". http://www.spinalinjury.net/html/_complications_of_a_spinal_cor.html
(Alyssa Zimmermann- March 02, 2010)




Below is a chart showing the anterior, lateral and posterior views of the spinal chord and the four curvitures that make up the spine.
(Evan Busch- March 04, 2010)

external image 05-4_Overall_Spine.jpg
The Atlas and Axis are the first two cervical (sir-ve-kal) vertebrae below the skull. These structures do not look like typical vertebrae. The atlas is ring shaped. It balances and supports the head. The axis has a tooth-like projection (called the odontoid process, oh-don-toyed) that fits up into the atlas. The combination of these two structures allows the head to turn from side to side. The atlas pivots around the axis.

Atlas - Axis

?atlas
?atlas


The details of the humerus are shown in the adjacent diagram.
The structures you should be able to identify are:
  • head
  • anatomical neck
  • greater tubercle
  • lesser tubercle
  • crest of the greater tubercle



  • anthumerus.jpg
  • crest of the lesser tubercle
  • intertubercular sulcus (groove)
  • deltoid tuberosity
  • medial epicondyle
  • lateral epicondyle
  • capitulum
  • trochlea
  • coronoid fossa
  • olecranon fossa


http://home.comcast.net/~wnor/lesson4bonesofarm&forearm.htm
( Alicia Hutton, March 8th, 2010 )



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z6jUzWUGcOs
(Alyssa Zimmermann, 03/10/2010)


external image hand.jpg
The Hand consists of the Carpal bones, metacarupal bones and phalange bones which in conjunction allow for articulation of the fingers. The human hand consists of five metacarpal bones, seven carpul bones, five proximal phalanges, four middle phalanges, and five distal phalanges. The scaphoid and lunate articulate with the radius and ulna respectively in order to form the human wrist.

http://visual.merriam-webster.com/images/human-being/anatomy/skeleton/hand.jpg (Evan Busch, May 10th 2010)

File:Gray237.png
File:Gray237.png


The hip bone consists of three parts, the ilium, ischium, and pubis, which are distinct from each other in a young subject, but are fused in the adult; the union of the three parts takes place in and around a large cup-shaped articular cavity, the acetabulum, which is situated near the middle of the outer surface of the bone.
  • The ilium, so-called because it supports the flank, is the superior broad and expanded portion which extends upward from the acetabulum.
  • The ischium is the lowest and strongest portion of the bone; it proceeds downward from the acetabulum, expands into a large tuberosity, and then, curving forward, forms, with the pubis, a large aperture, the obturator foramen.
  • The pubis extends medially and inferiorly from the acetabulum and articulates in the midsagittal plane at the pubic symphysis, with the bone of the opposite side: it forms the front of the pelvis and supports the external organs of reproduction.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hip_bone
http://zinjanthropus.wordpress.com/2009/03/29/maleorfemalepelvis/
pelvis-454x309.jpg
external image os_coxa_lat_PB060022_lbd.JPG
http://biology.clc.uc.edu/fankhauser/Labs/Anatomy_&_Physiology/A&P201/Skeletal/selected_bones/os_coxa_lat_PB060022_lbd.JPG

LowerLegAnterior.jpg
http://www.free-online-health.com/lower-leg-bones.htm
external image foot.gif
http://www.jklcompany.com/foot.gif
Bone Fractures
Fractures
basic information on female sexual problems
basic information on female sexual problems

skin
  • Greenstick fracture: an incomplete fracture in which the bone is bent. This type occurs most often in children.
  • Transverse fracture: a fracture at a right angle to the bone's axis.
  • Oblique fracture: a fracture in which the break has a curved or sloped pattern.
  • Comminuted fracture: a fracture in which the bone fragments into several pieces.
  • An impacted fracture is one whose ends are driven into each other. This is commonly seen in arm fractures in children and is sometimes known as a buckle fracture. Other types of fracture are pathologic fracture, caused by a disease that weakens the bones, and stress fracture, a hairline crack.
  • Other types of fracture are pathologic fracture, caused by a disease that weakens the bones, and stress fracture.
The severity of a fracture depends upon its location and the damage done to the bone and tissue near it. Serious fractures can have dangerous complications if not treated promptly; possible complications include damage to blood vessels or nerves and infection of the bone (osteomyelitis) or surrounding tissue. Recuperation time varies depending on the age and health of the patient and the type of fracture. A minor fracture in a child may heal within a few weeks; a serious fracture in an older person may take months to heal.

(Evan Busch, 4/16/10)
(http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/understanding-fractures-basic-information)



Alicia Hutton(April 19th, 2010)
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vw0oXQ-gZWM)



(Alyssa Zimmermann, 05/10/2010)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mL0SsSwccdQ